Working with the Knowledge Graph

This tutorial provides a set of examples that show how to interact with the Blackfynn Knowledge graph. Some of the topics covered here include:

  • creating new models

  • creating new records

  • adding relationships between the created records


Let’s start by creating a dataset that we can use for this tutorial. If you would like to find out more information about moving, uploading, downloading data or other data catalog operations, please see Working with the Data Catalog.

Connect to Blackfynn

from blackfynn import Blackfynn

# create a client instance
bf = Blackfynn()

Tutorial Dataset

Knowledge graphs belong to a dataset. If you do not have an existing dataset to use, you can create one for this tutorial:

ds = bf.create_dataset("Mark's Knowledge Graph Tutorial")

If you have an existing dataset to use for the tutorial, you can use bf.get_dataset(...) to retrieve before continuing.

Defining and Creating Models

Here, we will create a few models using the client.

Models to Create

The following represents our intended set of knowledge graph models, with their corresponding properties.

- subject_id
- name
- age

- visit_id
- date
- reason

- room_number
- machine_model
- administrator

- context
- mood
- motor_skill

Define Model Schemas

In the following section, we will define each model schema and then use these to create each model on the platform. There are several approaches to creating models, however, for simplicity we will only showcase a single method which uses ModelProperty objects directly.

Allowable data types

The following values can be used to specify the data type. In Blackfynn, there is no distinction between the different values for each data type, e.g. long and int will result in the same Blackfynn data type (Integer).


"string", str, or unicode (if python2)


"long", int, long (if python2)


"double" or float


"boolean" or bool


"date" or datetime.datetime


The default data type for a property is a String, unless specified otherwise.


Currently, you must specify at least one Model property to serve as a “title”. Ensure you set the title=True for at least one property in your Model’s schema, otherwise you may encounter an error.


# we will use ModelProperty to define our schemas
from blackfynn import ModelProperty

participant_schema = [
    ModelProperty('name', title=True),
    ModelProperty('subject_id', data_type=int),
    ModelProperty('age',  data_type=int)


visit_schema = [
    ModelProperty('visit_id', title=True),
    ModelProperty('date', data_type='date'),


eeg_schema = [
    ModelProperty('room_number', title=True),


exam_schema = [
    ModelProperty('context', title=True),
    ModelProperty('mood', data_type=int),
    ModelProperty('motor_skill', data_type=float),

Create Models

Knowledge graphs, and the models within them, are tied to a dataset. Using the defined schemas, we can now create models on the Blackfynn platform within the tutorial dataset. Once we execute create_model(...) the model will appear on the dataset’s knowledge graph section.

ds.create_model('Participant', schema = participant_schema)
ds.create_model('Visit',       schema = visit_schema)
ds.create_model('EEG',         schema = eeg_schema)
ds.create_model('Exam',        schema = exam_schema)

Creating Records

In this section we will create model instances, referred to as “records”, for each of the models that we have created so far.

Creating an individual record

Here we will create one record for the Participant model.

# get the the model
participant = ds.get_model('Participant')

# create a new participant in the graph
pt_123 = participant.create_record({
    'name': 'Karl',
    'age': 34,
    'subject_id': 123

Congratulations, you just created your first Participant record! The variable pt_123 (of type Record) can now be used to manipulate the record values and/or relate to other records.

Creating multiple records

We can also create multiple records at the same time through the create_records() method.

participant_values = [
    {'name': 'Lucy',   'age': 67, 'subject_id': 200},
    {'name': 'Silvia', 'age': 70, 'subject_id': 300},
    {'name': 'Zach',   'age': 55, 'subject_id': 400},


Retrieving Records

You can easily retrieve your created records using the get_all() method.

all_pts = participant.get_all()

And easily transform the result into a Panda’s DataFrame object:

age subject_id name
0 34 123 Karl
1 67 200 Lucy
2 70 300 Silvia
3 55 400 Zach

Relating Records

Basics (example)

Relating records is done via some_record.relate_to(...) method, which will relate some_record to a single record, a list of records, or a data package.

The follow examples showcase this method, but will not work unless visit_1, visit_2, etc. exist.


will relate record pt_123 with record visit1. You can relate many records by supplying a list of records:

pt_123.relate_to([visit1, visit2, visit3])

Relating Participant to Visit Records

Utilizing the methods above, we will create a series of Visits for each Participant and relate them to the Participant.

from datetime import datetime

visit = ds.get_model('Visit')

for pt in participant.get_all():

    # create 4 fake visits per participant
    pt_visits = visit.create_records([
        {'visit_id': 1, 'date': datetime(2018,12,1), 'reason': 'screening'},
        {'visit_id': 2, 'date': datetime(2018,12,2), 'reason': 'visit 1'},
        {'visit_id': 3, 'date': datetime(2018,12,3), 'reason': 'visit 2'},
        {'visit_id': 4, 'date': datetime(2018,12,4), 'reason': 'final visit'},

    # and link the visits to the participant (pt)

Relating Visits to EEG and Exam Records

Similarly, for each Visit we will create an EEG record and two Exam records (before and after the EEG). Additionally, we will utilize the relationship_type argument to set the relationship type between Visit and EEGs/Exams as “collected”, i.e. visit_1 --collected--> exam_1.

from random import randint, random

eeg = ds.get_model('EEG')
exam = ds.get_model('Exam')

for a_visit in visit.get_all():

    # One EEG per visit
    visit_eeg = eeg.create_record({
        'room_number': 4128,
        'machine_model': 'Starstim R32',
        'administrator': 'Kevin'

    # relate to visit
    a_visit.relate_to(visit_eeg, relationship_type='collected')

    # Two exams per visit (before/after EEG)
    visit_exam1 = exam.create_record({
        'context': 'before',
        'mood': randint(1,10),
        'motor_skill': round(random()*10, 2)
    visit_exam2 = exam.create_record({
        'context': 'after',
        'mood': randint(1,10),
        'motor_skill': round(random()*10, 2)

    # relate exams to visit
    a_visit.relate_to([visit_exam1, visit_exam2], relationship_type='collected')

Relating Records to Files

Records can be related to files on the Blackfynn Platform. Files are represented as DataPackage objects in the data catalog.

For example, in our current graph, we would likely want each EEG record to relate to a DataPackage that is an uploaded EEG file representing the EEG session. Let’s assume that there are files named EEG 1, EEG 2, etc. in our current dataset, you would go about linking these files just as if they are other records:

eeg = ds.get_model('EEG')

for i, eeg_record in enumerate(eeg.get_all()):
    # get the corresponding EEG file
    eeg_file = ds.get_items_by_name('EEG ' + i)[0]

    # relate to the current record

Congratulations — you have successfully created a knowledge graph on the Blackfynn platform!